IELTS causes and solutions essay - band 9 guide

In this lesson you will learn how to write a high-scoring causes & solutions essay in IELTS Writing. As an example, the model essay will be about loss of bio-diversity. Basically, causes & solutions essay is one of the most common question types in IELTS writing task 2. This question asks you to describe causes and propose solutions for a given problem.

In this lesson you will see:

IELTS problems & solutions question sample

For example, this is the question you’ve got for IELTS writing task 2:

Influence of human beings on the world's ecosystem is leading to the extinction of species and loss of bio-diversity.

What are the primary causes of loss of bio-diversity?

What solutions can you suggest?

Of course, the topics for causes & solutions essay may vary, but the answering strategy is pretty much the same for all essays of causes/solutions type.

Producing ideas

As you know, it’s recommended to spend about 40 minutes on IELTS Writing task 2. But before starting to write your essay, it’s a good idea to dedicate 2-4 minutes to producing some ideas for your essay. This way you’ll know what to write about and your essay will be more structured.

To produce ideas for causes and solutions essay, you have to determine 3 things:

The problem is already given: loss of bio-diversity (in other words, some animals and plants are dying out).

Now let’s think about its causes and solutions. Don’t be afraid of simple ideas! Remember: getting a high score means writing simple things well. Here are some ideas that may come to your mind:


After you’ve though of the possible causes, you can use them in your writing. You can invent more reasons of this problem, but usually, it’s enough to give 1-2 causes in your writing.

Possible solutions:

1-2 solutions are enough for a good essay. Now, after we’ve collected some ideas, it’s time to structure our thoughts into an essay.

Band 9 answer structure for causes & solutions essay

There may be many possible answering strategies, but we’ll use this good and time-tested essay structure:

  1. Introduction
  2. Body paragraph 1 – causes
  3. Body paragraph 2 – solutions
  4. Conclusion


Write the introduction in 2 sentences:

Body paragraph 1 - causes

Body paragraph 2 - solutions


Model essay for IELTS Writing causes/solutions question

The model band-9 essay for this question will look as follows:

Despite knowing about biodiversity’s importance for a long time, human activity has been causing massive extinctions of different species. This essay will examine the main causes of loss of biodiversity and possible solutions of this problem.

The two main causes of species extinction are change of their habitats and overexploitation of natural resources. When humans artificially transform the environment, they destroy vegetation and animals’ natural habitat. For instance, to build new roads people are cutting down the trees and cementing the soil, altering the environment. Because of that, a lot of species are dying out. Also, when the activities connected with capturing and harvesting a natural resource are too intense in a particular area, the resource becomes exhausted. For example, too frequent fishing doesn’t leave enough time for fish to reproduce and makes them disappear. In other words, human activities often deplete local flora and fauna and cause loss of bio-diversity.

Some possible solutions to this problem are protecting natural areas and promoting awareness among people. By protecting areas where human activity is limited and avoiding overexploitation of its resources, we can save the untouched environment and prevent species from dying out. Moreover, the next step in fighting bio-diversity loss is informing the general population about the dangers of this problem. This way, people will be more conscious of the environment and won’t overuse or destroy its resources.

To conclude, people’s activities that change the environment have negative impact on the world's ecosystem. However, we can significantly lessen the extinction of species by protecting natural areas and enlightening people as to this problem.

(263 words)